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Introduction


The department of microbiology is an essential part of basic medical sciences at University of Health Sciences. It consists of faculty with expertise in all disciplines of medical Microbiology i.e. Bacteriology, Parasitology and Mycology. The courses in microbiology are designed to equip the students with state of the art knowledge, practical skills relevant to medical Microbiology. It is envisaged that these efforts will go a long way to produce medical teachers of high quality with strong hands on experience and necessary skills to initiate and carry out teaching as well as research of internationally accepted standards.
Objectives

  • Full time 3 years course for PhD programme in Medical Microbiology.
  • Full time 2 years course for M. Phil Medical Laboratory Sciences programme in Medical Microbiology.
  • Full time 2 years course for M. Phil programme in Medical Microbiology.
  • The course in Medical Microbiology is designed to train the students in four major disciplines i.e. Bacteriology, Virology, Parasitology and Mycology.
  • The course in Medical Microbiology also covers Anaerobic Microbiology, Food Microbiology, Water Microbiology and Control of Hospital Acquired Infections.
  • The course specially emphasizes on most prevalent diseases in the country i.e. Typhoid, Tuberculosis, Cholera etc.
  • Dental graduates are trained with special emphasis on Oral Microbiology.
  • The whole course consists of intensive practical training to make the students competent diagnostic microbiologists and confident teachers.
  • For the 2nd year, a research topic selected by the student (and duly approved by Advanced Studies &Research Board) to indulge in and a thesis is submitted for defense before an appropriate committee of local and foreign examiners. Throughout the course, the student is subjected to regular internal evaluation.
  • At the successful end of 2 year M.Phil program the bright and deserving candidates may be offered to undergo one or more years of advance research of his/her topic to be eligible for the award of PhD degree; subject the same is approved by a team of highly qualified and reputable teachers/researchers in the field, including at least two external examiners from technically advanced countries.
  • Department of Microbiology also trained medical technologists for Masters Program (MT) in Microbiology.
  • To provide a platform that encourages critical thinking, ethical responsibility, professional learning and mutual cooperation amongst the staff and students. The main idea is to produce future microbiologists and teachers.
  • To facilitate its students in performing research of national and international significance and to provide them with the infrastructure and the technical and intellectual support they require achieving these goals.
  • To operate efficiently within the University Management structures.
  • To find ways to involve local industry for Pharmaceutical research.

Working Facilities

Department of Microbiology is fully equipped with the following state of the art equipment with adequate quantity of consumables and reagent kits.

  • BACTEC 9120 for Blood culture
  • BACTEC MGIT 960 for detection and susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
  • Automated Media Preparation & Pouring station.
  • Autoclave (Astell UK)
  • Biological safety cabinet Class II.
  • Laminar Flow Cabinet.
  • Stomach for Food Microbiology
  • Ultra low Temperature (-80°C) Freezer for long term preservation of Microbiological Isolates.
  • Incubators
  • Hot Oven
  • Water Bath
  • pH Meter
  • Digital Balance
  • Double Door Laboratory Purpost Refrigerator
  • Deep Freezer -20°C
  • Water Sterility Testing Unit (Millipore)
  • Microscopes
In addition to above mentioned state of the art equipment, the department has ancillary facilities necessary for diagnostic as well research activities.
Future Plans

  • Establishment of Salmonella Reference Center.
  • Establishment of Honey Research Unit.
  • Establishment of Reference Center for Tuberculosis.
  • Provincial/National Quality Control Center.
  • Reference Center for Cholera.
  • Clonal Biotyping of clinical isolates.
  • Molecular Medical Microbiology.
  • Establishment of Parasitology Section.

Research Activities

Department of Microbiology has state of the art diagnostic and research facilities that make the Department fully capable of giving diagnostic service to any of the hospitals. Department is capable of performing all sorts of research in Clinical Microbiology. Currently Department is working actively on different natural herbal products:

Antibacterial Activity of Natural Products / Medicinal Plants
Honey
  • Research projects on antibacterial activity of Honey against various Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria bacteria including Typhoidal Salmonellae, Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis Acinetobacter baumannii etc. A couple of research projects have also been done on antibacterial efficacy of honey in mouse model. Projects on disruption of bacterial and fungal biofilms by honey have also been done and have promising results. Our future research projects on honey will emphasize on biochemical characterization and standardization of Pakistani honey and aiming at the individual efficacies of various active ingredients against various MDR, XDR and PDR microorganisms. The same will also be exploited in animal mouse model.
Black Seed (Nigella Sativa)
  • A research paper addressing the antibacterial activity of Black seed against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus has also been published.
Propolis
  • A couple of research projects have been done on Antibacterial activity of Propolis against Acinetobacter baumannii.
Garlic (Allium sativum)
  • A couple of research projects have been completed on antibacterial activity of Garlic against clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhi and also against MDR and non-MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Another research project on synergistic activity of garlic and ciprofloxacin against Salmonella Typhi has also been completed.
Neem Leaves (Azadirachta indica)
  • A project has been completed on antibacterial activity of Neem extract against Salmonella Typhi and has been completed and published.
Mango Leaves (Magnifera Indica)
  • A project has already been completed on Antibacterial effect of mango (Magnifera indica Linn.) leaf extract against antibiotic sensitive and multi-drug resistant Salmonella Typhi.
Pomegranate (Punica granatum)
  • A project has been completed on Anti-typhoid potential of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) - An in vitro study.
Onion (Allium cepa)
  • A project has been completed on antibacterial activity of onion (Allium cepa) against clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae.
Efficacy of Antibiotics:
  • Various research projects have been done on antibacterial activity of various antibiotics against different clinically important organisms. Research projects on synergistic effect of various antibiotic combinations against Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have also been completed.
Molecular Medical Microbiology:
  • The department of Microbiology has designed some new research projects on molecular medical microbiology focusing on prevalence, genotyping of various important pathogens including MRSA, Group B Streptococcus, ESBL producing gram negative rods,prevalence and molecular characterization of New DehliMetallo-?-Lactamase producing gram negative rods.The department has already completed a project on genotyping of Dengue virus.
Anaerobic Microbiology:
  • Three research projects have been completed in this regard and few are in process of completion.
Food Microbiology:
  • A research project has been completed on microbiological status of Ready to Eat Salads from various restaurants in Lahore.
Water Microbiology:
  • A project was done on "Bacteriological status of drinking water from 100 families of Lahore by membrane filtration technique".

Research Projects Completed (PhD Microbiology)

  • Screening of Pakistani honeys for their antibacterial potential against multi-drug-resistant Salmonella Typhi.
  • Efficacy of honey against MRSA systemic infections in mouse model.
  • Antibacterial activity of methylglyoxal against multi-drug resistant Salmonella Typhi.

Research Projects PhD Microbiology (Ongoing)

  • Molecular characterization of NDM gene in gram negative rods and efficacy of Manuka honey against NDM positive strains in mouse model

Research Projects Completed (M.Phil Microbiology)

  • In vitro activity of Pakistani Beri Honey against clinical isolates of typhoidal salmonellae
  • Rapid Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using BACTEC MGIT 960
  • Pattern of periodontal microorganisms in patients who experience pre-term delivery
  • In vitro activity of Nigella sativa against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  • Carriage rate of group B Streptococcus in pregnant women
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Porphyromonas gingivalis in Periodontitis
  • Susceptibility pattern of black pigmented anaerobic periodontal pathogens to Propolis extract
  • Rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in CSF using BACTEC MGIT 960
  • Susceptibility pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis against second line anti-tuberculosis drugs
  • Association of oral Candidal carriage with dental caries in children
  • Anti typhoid activity of honey in mouse model (Mouse Typhoid)
  • Non-induction of resistance amongst Salmonella Typhi strains passaged in presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of beri honey
  • Antibacterial activity of Onion against clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae
  • Antibacterial activity of Propolis extract on clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii
  • Antibacterial activity of Rose petals against the clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhi
  • Antibacterial activity of beri honey against clinical isolates of multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii
  • Antibacterial activity of "Neem" (Azadirachta Indica) leaf extracts against wound infection causing bacteria
  • Synergistic antimicrobial activity of Garlic extract (Allium sativum) with ciprofloxacin against clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhi
  • Comparison of Beri Honey and Sliver sulphadiazine as a topical antibacterial agent in infected wounds
  • Antimicrobial activity of Garlic extract against Vibrio cholerae
  • Antimicrobial activity of beri honey against MDR & XDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Microbiological and susceptibility pattern of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant woman
  • In vitro role of honey in disruption of Salmonella Typhi biofilm
  • Inhibition and disruption of Candida albicans biofilm by honey
  • Antibacterial activity of methylglyoxal reconstituted beri honey against extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase producing Gram negative rods
  • Detection of Dengue viral RNA and serotyping in NS1 positive sera by PCR
  • Efficacy of intravenous honey in mouse model
  • Group B Streptococcus serotypes in pregnant women

Research Projects Completed (M. Phil Medical Laboratory Sciences in Medical Microbiology)

  • FIn vitro efficacy of polymixin B in combination with colistin, rifampin and doxycycline against XDR Acinetobacter baumannii.
  • In vitro efficacy of ceftazidime in combinations with meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, amikacin and ciprofloxacin against extensively drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Research Projects Completed (M.Sc MT)

  • Frequency of extended spectrum beta-lactamase enzymes (ESBL) in the clinical isolates of Enterobateriaceae
  • Evaluation of garlic activity against MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis by BACTEC MIGT 960
  • Frequency of carbapenem resistance and carbapenemases in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae
  • Susceptibility profiles of new anti staphylococcal agents - an in vitro study
  • In vitro antibacterial activity of crude leaf extract of mango (Mangnifera indica)
  • Susceptibility pattern of clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhi against ethanolic extract of Garlic
  • Metallo-beta lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeuroginosa- Potent Enemy
  • Antifungal activity of natural products against clinical isolates of Candida species
  • Bacteriological status of drinking water from 100 families of Lahore by membrane filtration technique
  • Prevalence, Biotyping and Susceptibility Pattern of Coagulase Negative Staphylococci isolated from cases of neonatal Septicemia in tertiary care Hospital
  • Evaluation of antibacterial activity of different brands of ofloxacin against Salmonella Typhi
  • Frequency of extended spectrum beta lactamases in clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhi
  • Detection of MRSA nasal carriage in hospital population using chrome agar
  • In vitro activity of Linezolid against clinical isolates of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  • Microbiological status of ready-to-eat salads available at different restaurants and venders at Lahore
  • In vitro anti-mycobacterial activity of Pakistani beri Honey against MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Relationship between the susceptibility of typhoidal salmonellae to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin & respective susceptibility to Nalidixic acid
  • Exploitation of standard modified Hodge test for detection of ESBL in Enterobacteriaceae isolates
  • Vaginal Carriage of K1 Escherichia coli during third trimester of pregnancy
  • Frequency of SCCmec type IV & V in Clinical Isolates of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Research Projects M. Phil Medical Laboratory Sciences in Medical Microbiology (Ongoing)

  • Molecular identification of blaIMP and blaVIM genes in Metallo-?-lactamase producing Gram negative rods
  • Molecular Identification of blaSHV and blaOXA genes in Exteded Spectrum-?-lactamase producing Gram negative rods
  • Frequency of SCCmec type I, II and III in clinical isolates of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus
  • Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of organisms isolated from Gallbladder

Research Projects M. Phil Microbiology (Ongoing)

  • Synergistic antimicrobial activity of Black seed (Nigella sativa) with ciprofloxacin against isolates of multi-drug resistant Salmonella Typhi
  • Frequency of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among clinical isolates of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and molecular detection of vanA and vanB genes
  • Identification of non-typeable serotypes of Group B Streptococcus by polymerase chain reaction
  • Molecular detection of blaKPC in clinical isolates of gram negative rods
  • Isolation and identification of dermatophytes and their antifungal susceptibility to ketoconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole and terbinafine by agar diffusion neo-sensitabs methods
  • In vitro SlamonellaTyphi biofilm formation on Gall stones and its destruction by Manuka honey

Research Projects M.Sc MT (Ongoing)

  • Molecular detection of CTX-M and TEM genes in ESBL producing gram negative rods

Achievements

  • 03 Students have completed their PhDs and have been awarded degrees.
  • 29 students have accomplished M.Phil in Microbiology and have been awarded degrees.
  • 05 M.Phil students have cleared their course work and are doing their research projects.
  • 05 M.Phil students have completed their research projects and are in the process of thesis writing.
  • 06 M.Phil students have submitted their synopsis for review and ASRB approval.
  • 20 M.Sc MT students have completed their research projects and have been awarded degrees.
  • For the last few years the so called "Gastro" had been in the news without anybody resolving the issue precisely. The Department took the initiative and resolved one such major outbreak of Mirpur Khas and proved it to be an outbreak of Vibrio cholerae biotype El Tor Serotype Ogawa. This has been documented and appeared on Internet.

Workshops / Seminars

  • 1st Hands-On workshop on Microbiology was successfully organized by the department on 8-10 February, 2011.
  • 2nd Hands-On workshop on Microbiology to be organized in 2015.

Articles Submitted for Publication
  • In vitro formation of biofilm by Salmonella on gall stones.
  • Molecular detection of SCCmec type IV and V in clinical isolates of MRSA.

Articles in Pipeline
  • Molecular identification of blaSHV and blaOXA genes in extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing gram negative rods.
  • Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of organisms isolated from human gallbladder.
  • Frequency of SCCmec type I, II and III in clinical isolates of Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
  • Molecular identification of blaIMP and blaVIM genes in Metallo-beta-lactamase producing gram negative rods.

Scientific Collaboration

The Department of Microbiology is collaborating with following institutions:

  • Forman Christian College University, Lahore.
  • Government College University, Lahore.
  • Services Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore (Dr. Ghulam Qadir Fayyaz).
  • Punjab University Lahore. (Prof. Dr. Abdul Rauf Shakoori).

Research Publications

  1. Hannan, A., Raja, M., Arshad, M.U. and Absar, M., 2008. 'Gastro' of Mirpur Khas (Sindh) is resolved. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad, 20(1):10-12.
  2. Hannan, A., Saleem, S., Chaudary, S., Barkaat, M. and Usman, M.,2008. Antibacterial activity of Nigella sativa against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad, 20(3):72-74.
  3. Hannan, A., Chaudary, S., Saleem, S. and Usman, M., 2008. Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis;"The Need of Hour". J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad, 20(4):67-69.
  4. Ahmad, D., Mansha, M., Hannan, A., Barkaat, M. and Bibi, N., 2009. Antibacterial acitivity of Ballotalimbataagainst potential multidrug resistant human pathogens (Running ahead :antibacterial acitivity of B. limbata against potential MDR pathogens). J Appl Sci Res, 5(10):1611-1614.
  5. Hannan, A., Barkaat, M., Usman, M., Gilani, W.A. and Sami, W., 2009. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Honey against clinical isolates of Multi-drug resistant Typhoidal Salmonellae. Pakistan J Zool, 41(1):1-6.
  6. Hannan, A., Hussain, M.B. and Absar, M., 2009. Antibacterial activity of uniforal honeys against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Planta Med, 75: 1072.
  7. Hannan, A., Rashid, M., Shabbir, A., Barkaat, M., Saleem, S. and Hafeez, A., 2009. Anti-typhoid potential of Punica granatum (Pomegranate) - An in vitro study. Planta Med, 75: 1072.
  8. Hannan, A., Shabbir, A., Jehangir, H.M., Barkaat, M., Rashid, M. and Ahsan, U., 2009. In vitro antimicrobial activity of propolis (bee glue) against pigmented anaerobic periodontal pathogens. Planta Med, 75: 1072.
  9. Hannan, A., Ikramullah, M., Qayum, A., Shah, K.A., Arshad, U. and Hussain, S., 2009. Evaluation of anti-mycobacterial activity of garlic (Allium sativum) against clinical isolates of non-MDR and MDR Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Planta Med, 75: 1073.
  10. Hannan, A., Absar, M., Usman, M., Naeem, T., Saleem, S. and Arshad, M., 2010. In vitro activity of linezolid against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad, 21(1):106-109.
  11. Hannan, A., Humayun, T., Hussain, M.B., Yasir, M. and Sikandar, S.,2010. In vitro antibacterial activity of onion (Allium cepa) against clinical isolates of Vibrio cholerae. J ayub med coll abbottabad, 22(2): 160-163.
  12. Hannan, A., Hafeez, A., Chaudary, S. and Rashid. M., 2010. Rapid Confirmation of Tuberculous Meningitis in Children by Liquid Culture Media. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad, 22(4): 171-175.
  13. Raja, M., Hannan, A. and Ali. A., 2010. Association of Oral Candidal Carriage with Dental Caries in Children. Caries Res,44: 196-200.
  14. Hannan, A., Yasir, M., Naeem, T., Izhar, M., Arshad, M. and Arshad, M.U., 2011. Carbapenemase intrudes K. pneumonia in local clinical isolates. Pak J Path, 22(1): 1-5.
  15. Hannan, A., IkramUllah, M., Usman, M., Hussain, S., Absar, M. and Javed. K., 2011. Anti-Mycobacterial activity of Garlic (Allium Sativum) against Multi-Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci.,24(1): 81-85.
  16. Yaqub, G., Hannan, A., Usman, M., Akbar, E. and Mateen, B., 2012.,In Vitro Antifungal and Antibacterial Activity of Carbazoles. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 24(11): 5121-5123.
  17. Hannan, A., Rauf, K., IkramUllah, M., Naeem, T., Raja, M., Qamar, M.U., Tahir, R.and Saba. M., 2012. Inhibitory effect of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract against clinical isolates of Salmonella Typhi. Afr. J. Microbio. Resear, 6(21): 4475-4480.
  18. Hannan, A., Azhar, H., Saleem, S., Azam, M. and Rehman. R., 2012. Vaginal carriage of K1 Escherechia coli in third trimester of pregnancy. Pakistan Journal of Pathology, 23(3): 78-81.
  19. Yaqub, G., Hannan, A., Akbar, E., Usman, M., Hamid, A., Sadiq, Z. and Iqbal, M., 2013. Synthesis, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Novel Pyridazino Carbazoles. Journal of Chemistry, 2013: 1-7.
  20. Hannan, A., Asghar, S., Naeem, T., IkramUllah, M., Ahmed, I., Aneela, S. and Hussain, S., 2013. Antibacterial effect of mango (Magnifera indica Linn.) leaf extract against antibiotic sensitive and multi-drug resistant Salmonella Typhi. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 26(4): 715-719.
  21. Hannan, A., Qamar, M.U., Usman, M., Waheed, K.A.I. and Rauf. K., 2013. Multidrug resistant microorganisms causing neonatal septicemia: In a tertiary care hospital Lahore, Pakistan. Afr. J. Microbio. Resear, 7(19):1896-1902.
  22. Hannan, A., Khalid, F. and Arshad, M.U., 2014. Detection of extended spectrum beta lactamase in typhoidal salmonellae by phenotypic methods. Afr. J. Microbio. Resear, 8(3):313-315.
  23. Hannan, A., Khalid, F. and Arshad, M.U.,2014. In-vitro efficacy of polymixin B with rifampcin, colistin, and doxycycline against extensively drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Afr. J. Microbio. Resear, 8(4): 341-347.
  24. Qamar, M.U., Hannan, A., Arshad, M.U. and Arshad, M., 2014. Metallo-?-lactamse producing Enterobacter cloacae- an emerging threat in neronates. Afr. J. Microbio. Resear, 8(6): 525-528.
  25. Hannan, A., Gondal, A. J., Saleem, S., Arshad, M. U. and Lateef, W., 2014. In-vitro Efficacy of Ceftazidime in Combinations with Meropenem, Piperacillin/Tazobactam, Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin against Extensively Drug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pakistan J. Zool, 46(4): 1111-1116.
  26. Hannan, A., Khan, S. A., Choudhry, N., Saleem, S. and Mehboob, R., 2014. Antibacterial activity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extracts against. HealthMED, 8(4): 676-773.
  27. Hannan, A., Rehman, R., Saleem, S., khan, M. U., Qamar, M. U. and Azhar, H., 2014. Microbiological analysis of ready-to-eat salads at different outlets in Lahore, Pakistan. International Food Research Journal, 21(5): 1797-1800.
  28. Hannan, A., Munir, S., Arshad, M. U. and Bashir, N., 2014. In vitro antimycobacterial activity of PakistaniBeri honey using Bactec MGIT 960. International Scholarly Research Notices, 2014: 1-4.
  29. Saleem, S., Naseem, N., Hannan, A., Nagi, A.H., Qamar, M.U. and Akhtar, N., 2015. Dose related histological changes in mouse kidney after administration of manuka honey. Pakistan J. Zool., 47(1): 235-239.
  30. Hussain, M.B., Hannan, A., Akhtar, N., Fayyaz, G.Q., Imran, M., Saleem, S. and Qureshi, I.A., 2015. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of selected Pakistani honeys against multi drug resistant Salmonella Typhi. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15(1): 32.
  31. Hannan, A., Kokab, J. and Saleem, S., 2015. Effect of different doses of manuka honey in experimentally induced mouse typhoid. Pak. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 28(3), 891-902.

Faculty


Dr. Sidrah Saleem
  • Associate Professor / Head of Department
  • MBBS, M.Phil, PhD (Microbiology)

Muhammad Usman Arshad
  • Lab Manager
  • MSc Microbiology

M. Waseem Akhter
  • Laboratory attendant

Abdul Qudoos Tariq
  • Laboratory attendant

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