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Introduction


Oral Biology is a tremendously diverse scientific area encompassing various disciplines of craniofacial biology, regeneration and tissue engineering of oral structures, developmental biology, molecular biology, craniofacial genetics, oral microbiology and immunology, biophysics, pharmacology and oral physiology. The field of oral biology blends together fundamental scientific disciplines with the clinical prospective in intricate and fascinating ways due to the unique combinations of tissue types and functions of the craniofacial complex. This renders Oral Biologist to meet the challenges of developing effective ways to manage, repair, cure and prevent oral diseases and developmental defects.

M. Phi Oral Biology Program

  • Encompasses study of fundamental biological phenomenon related to the development, structure, and function of the craniofacial region and integrate it with the development of new therapies, biomaterials, and diagnostic tools for the treatment of diseases and disorders in the craniofacial area with the aim of improving patient health and well-being.
  • Focuses on the latest scientific developments related to the craniofacial complex and health offering basic science in a clinical context.
  • Builds a strong existing foundation to broaden cutting-edge research into the molecular basis of diseases.
  • Aims at investigating the oral diseases at the microbial, molecular and immunological level, with a view to development novel, effective and specific prevention and treatment strategies.
  • Provides a platform for students for opting diverse careers in academia or industry with the focus on Oral Health and Biomedical research

Structure of the course:

M. Phil in Oral Biology is two years program. Year one includes compulsory major (Oral Biology) and a compulsory minor (General Anatomy) subject. Year two is research-based. The students also have to appear in one of the minor electives chosen by them in year two which are as following;

  • General Pathology
  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Cytogenetic

This program covers major areas of oral histology as follows .

  • Craniofacial developmental biology,
  • Oral histology and structure of hard and soft tissues,
  • Oral physiology,
  • Dental biochemistry
  • Occlusion and Tooth morphology
  • Head and Neck Anatomy and Neuro-anatomy
  • General Anatomy

Teaching methodology followed in the department involves interactive lecture sessions, small group discussions and tutorials. The correlation of the normal with the abnormal oral conditions in development, structure and function is made with the help of clinical examples and histological pictures. The students are provided with the opportunity of learning on various anatomical models regarding the structures of head and neck. The students are given regular course assignments to facilitate independent active-learning. They are expected to present their assignments in a class room for discussion along with opportunity to improve their presentation skills.

Regular workshops on various aspects of research methodology are part of the learning program. There are weekly synopsis sessions with the supervisor and regular journal club meetings to keep in pace with the upcoming research trends. Students are also provided with the opportunity of research placements in other university departments or in collaborative institutes to further enhance molecular biology skills.

PROGRAMS:

The department offers 2-year Full-time M. Phil Oral Biology program. The PhD program in Oral Biology will also be started soon.

RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


The department has an interest on diverse research areas not limited to but includes
  • Salivary proteomics and biomarkers
  • Tissue engineering and regeneration of hard and soft oral tissues
  • Alternative medicines in Dentistry.
  • Craniofacial Development and stem cell biology

This program covers major areas of craniofacial developmental biology, oral histology and structure of hard and soft tissues, oral physiology, dental biochemistry and tooth morphology. Teaching methodology followed in the department involves interactive lecture sessions, small group discussions and tutorials. The correlation of the normal with the abnormal oral conditions in development, structure and function is made with the help of clinical examples and histological pictures. The students are provided with the opportunity of learning on various anatomical models regarding the structures of head and neck. The students are given regular course assignments to facilitate independent active-learning. They are expected to present their assignments in a class room for discussion along with opportunity to improve their presentation skills. Regular workshops on various aspects of research methodology are part of the learning program. There are weekly synopsis sessions with the supervisor and regular journal club meetings to keep in pace with the upcoming research trends. Students are also provided with the opportunity of research placements in other university departments or in collaborative institutes to further enhance molecular biology skills.

The Oral Biology has developed its own Laboratory with the following equipment and Teaching aid models for Oral Biology program.

Sr.

No.

Equipment

Sr. No.

Equipment

1

Biological safety cabinet

12

Micro-plate Elisa Reader

2

Centrifuge

13

Microtome with Slide Dryer

3

Dental Unit (Portable)

14

Multichannel Pipettes

4

Dissecting Microscope

15

PH meter

5

Electronic Analytical balance

16

Pipetting Aid

6

Elisa washer

17

Platform Shaker

7

High speed Hand piece

18

Slow speed hand piece

8

Horizontal Gel electrophoresis

19

Roller Mixer

9

Horizontal Gel electrophoresis

20

Thermo-cycler

10

Magnetic stirrer

21

Tissue Floating bath

11

Micro Pipettes

Sr.

No.

Teaching Aid Models

Sr. No.

Teaching Aid Models

1

Beauchene Skull

12

Dental Disease Model

2

Deluxe Head with Neck

13

Fetal skull

3

Dentition development

14

Giant eye

4

Microanatomy of Tongue

15

Head Model 6 parts

5

Tongue Model

16

Lower half Jaw 6 parts

6

Nose model with para-nasal sinuses

17

Milk Dentures

7

Adult Dentures

18

Micro-cephalic Skull

8

Advance half lower jaw with 8 diseased teeth

19

Orangutan Skull

9

Ear model 3-times life size

20

Skull with Muscles

10

Classic Eye in orbit -9parts

21

Skull with Cleft jaw & Palate

11

Desktop Ear Model

22

Neurovascular skull

Research Publications of Oral Biology

A. International Publications

1. Primary cilia regulate Shh activity in the control of molar tooth number, Development. 2009. Mar;136(6):897-903

2. Cytoplasmic Plaque Formation in Hemidesmosome Development Is Dependent on SoxF Transcription Factor Function. Plos One. 2012. 7(9):e43857.

3. Bmp signalling in filiform tongue papillae development. Arch Oral Biol. 2012. 57(6):805-13.

4. Multiple postnatal craniofacial anomalies are characterized by conditional loss of Polycystic Kidney Disease 2 (Pkd2). Hum Mol Genet. 2013. 22(9):1873-85.

5. The buccohypophyseal canal is an ancestral vertebrate trait maintained by modulation in sonic hedgehog signaling. 2013. BMC Biol. 28;11:27

6. Excess NF-kB induces ectopic odontogenesis in embryonic incisor epithelium. J Dent Res. 2015. 94 (1): 121-8.

7. Fabrication, in vitro and in vivo studies of bilayer composite membrane for periodontal guided tissue regeneration. 2019. J Biomater Appl. Feb;33(7):967-978. doi: 10.1177/0885328218814986. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

8. Developing a synthetic composite membrane for cleft palate repair. J Tissue Eng Regen M, 2019. Apr 11. doi: 10.1002/term.2867

B. National Publications: Peer Reviewed & Impact factor

1. Bano, S., Ghafoor, S., Naseem, N., 2017. Cytological changes in sublingual salivary gland development produced by thyroid hormone. BioMedica,.33 (3):206-210

2. Bano, S., Ghafoor, S., Naseem, N., 2018. Effect of thyroid hormone on the histology of rat submandibular salivary gland during postnatal development. JPDA,.27(1):242-47 (Y-Category-HEC)

3. Hassan, G., Ghafoor, S., 2018. Unilateral protostylid on buccal surface of permanent maxillary first molar: A rare finding. JPDA., 27(3): 157-160 (Y-Category-HEC)

4. Iftikhar, S., Chaudhry, S., Ghafoor, S., 2018. Angina bullous haemorrhagica: Case report and review of Literature. J Pak Med Assoc. 68(10):1527-1530. (IF=0.718) (W-category HEC)

5. Ghafoor, S., Chaudhry, S., Khan, J. S., 2018. Burnout in Post graduate Students enrolled in Basic Dental Sciences. BioMedica,.34(1):38-43

6. Bano, S., Ghafoor, S. Comparative anatomy and molecular mechanisms involved in rodent salivary gland development. 2018. Biomedica,. 34(3) 173-177.

7. Bano, S., Ghafoor, S., Naseem, N., 2019. Regulation of Transforming Growth Factor-Alpha expression by thyroid hormone during the post-natal development of rat submandibular and sublingual salivary glands. Pakistan J. Zool., vol. 51(2), pp 449-457, 2019. (IF=0.790) (W-category HEC)

8. Ghafoor, S. Khan, JS. 2019. Outcome-based Dental Education and Identification of Practice Gaps; A Narrative Review. JPDA.,28 (1):41-46. (Y-Category-HEC)

9. Khan, U.S., Ghafoor, S., 2019. Myokines: Discovery Challenges and Therapeutic Impediments. J Pak Med Assoc. 69(7)1014-17. (IF=0.718) (W-category HEC)

10. Bano, S., Naseem, N., Ghafoor, S. 2019. Immunohistochemical expression of transforming growth factor-alpha between rat submandibular and sublingual salivary glands during post-natal development. Pakistan J. Zool., vol. 51(3), pp 1099-1103. (IF=0.790) (W-category HEC)

11. Nasim, H., Ghafoor, S. 2019. Proteins regulating salivary and lacrimal flow in xerostomia and dry eye syndrome. JPDA. 28(2) 92-97 (Y- category HEC)

12. Khan, M., Ghafoor, S. 2019. Bioactive glass: regeneration in critical size defects in tibia of animal models. JPDA., 28(3):136-142. (Y Category-HEC)

13. Jabeen, N., Ghafoor, S. Salivary biomarkers of chronic periodontitis. 2019. 28(4): 197-200 (Y- category HEC)

14. Ejaz, I., Ghafoor, S,. 2019. Wnt Signaling pathway in oral lesions. J Pak Med Assoc. 69(11) 1687-1692. (IF=0.718) (W-category HEC)

15. Ghafoor, S. Chaudhry, S., Khan, JS. Marital status as predictor of stress among postgraduate dental students. Accepted for publication.2019. (IF=0.718) (W-category HEC)

C. Submitted to peer review national journals

1. Hassan, G., Ghafoor, S. Periodontal disease and herbal alternatives

2. Huda, NU., Ghafoor, S. Desmosomal Protein Regulation of Oral Mucosal Tissues

3. Zahid, T., Ghafoor, S. Molecular events in the clinicopathological diagnosis of alveolar osteitis

4. Salivary and imaging-based biomarkers of radiation therapy-induced xerostomia

PUBLIC ENGAGEMENT

The Department of Oral Biology is involved in many public engagement activities within the University campus and also outside the University

Students are encouraged and they actively participate in various Seminars, workshops and conferences that are held. They are also involved in presenting their work at national or international level.

The Department has organized Visits of Foreign Experts to the University and has been involved in organizing seminars, workshops etc for exchange of knowledge in the research and clinical community

a. Conference organized

1st UHS International Dental Conference 3rd-5th October 2019, at Expo Center Lahore

b. Conferences (co-organized):

· 1st Annual Conference of Pak Association for Dental Research , 24-26th October 2014, University of Health Sciences Lahore 2nd Annual Conference of Pak Association of Dental Research (IADR Pakistan Section) 4-6th September 2015, University of Health Sciences Lahore

· Organizer for “Simulations, simulated and Standardized patients in health Profession Education held in University of Health Sciences, 20th -22nd November 2014

c. Seminars Organized

· “An Over view of Cleft Lip & Palate� with AFID Islamabad, 05-01-2015

· “Clinical Research Seminar on cleft lip and palate care in the UK and Pakistan� , with PIMS Islamabad 6-01-2015

· “Cleft lip and Palate clinical cases� , 10-01-2015, at University of Health Sciences Lahore

· “ Treatment planning in Orthognathic Surgery and Orthodontics� with Fatima Memorial Hospital, 13-01-2015

· “Hard Tissue Management in Implant Dentistry - Respecting the Biology of Bone� by Dr. Maher Almasri, University of Health Sciences Lahore 12-07-2016

· “Think Outside the Mouth. The Oral Systemic Link: An Update� by Prof. Khalid Almas, University of Health Sciences Lahore, 12-07-2016

· “Oral Malodor (a social stigma): Etiology, Diagnosis and Management� With Fatima Memorial Hospital College of Dentistry Lahore , 13-07-2016

· “Guided Tissue Regeneration in Periodontal Practice� with IRCBM COMSATS Lahore, 14-07-2016

· “Tissue engineering and cell culture-based Techniques in Dentistry� University of Health Sciences Lahore, 15-07-2016

· “Foundations for Soft Tissue in Dental Implantology�, University of Health Sciences Lahore, 15-07-2016

d. Lecture organized:

Lecture on “Using Stem Cells, Nano-materials , Laser Light and 3D bio-printing for Tissue engineering; Applying biologic regulation to controlling clinical outcomes� by Dr. Saeed ur Rahman (PhD, State University of New York at Buffalo), 13-10-2016, University of Health Sciences Lahore

e. Workshop Organized

· Workshop on “Quality in Quantitative Research� 02-01-2015 by Dr. Ansa Javed Akram, University of Health Sciences Lahore

· Workshop on “Clinical problem solving workshop in orthodontics “ by Ansa Javed Akram, 12-01-2015 , Dental Section Children Hospital Lahore

· Workshop on “Using internet effectively for Evidence-based Dentistry Learning Purpose � 18-07-2016 by Prof. Khalid Almas, University of Health Sciences Lahore

  • Workshop on “Development of Qualitative questionnaire for Medical Researchâ€? 22nd Feb -2019 by Dr. Ansa Javed Akram, University of Health Sciences Lahore

Departmental Library

1. PUBLIC DEFENCE

Following M .Phil Project/s of the Department have cleared public defense

a) Effect of thyroid hormone on expression of transforming growth factor-Alpha of rat submandibular salivary glands.

2. REPOSITORY OF SYNOPSIS

This is available on the university website, the central library and the departmental library

http://www.uhs.edu.pk/research.php

3. GUIDELINES

The current guidelines for research as per approved by the University are as follows

(i) A student shall select a topic of thesis which will be recommended by the supervisor by the end of 1st academic year of studies for approval of the Advanced Studies & Research Board.

(ii) Each student shall perform research work in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the degree under the supervisor appointed for the purpose by the Advanced Studies and Research Board.

(iii) The research supervisor must hold a postgraduate degree which shall not be less than M. Phil in the relevant subject with sufficient experience.

(iv) Wherever necessary, a co-supervisor may also be appointed with postgraduate qualifications in the related field

(v) In case a student fails to complete the research and thesis requirements of M. Phil within a period of 2 years, provided that he has passed his 1st year examinations successfully (both major and one minor), an extension of another one year may be granted on the recommendation of the supervisor.

(vi) No extension beyond 12 months shall be granted under any circumstances. A student failing to submit his/her thesis by the end of the 3 rd year shall cease to be a student of the University. He/she shall not be allowed any other chance.

(vii) The student is required to submit 4 copies of thesis to the Controller of Examinations within the prescribed time limit.

(viii) The thesis shall be printed on A4 size paper and initially be submitted in ring bound form along with soft copy on CD and finally be submitted as black hard binding with golden lettering on the front and the spine in prescribed manner.

(ix) A copy of the thesis shall be sent to the library by the Controller of Examinations after successful completion of the requirements of the M. Phil degree by the candidate.

4. JOURNAL
The official journal of the University is “BioMedica”

5. LIBRARY

The Library books available in the Central library and in the Department of Oral Biology have the following books in the Departmental Library

Sr. No.

Book Title

1.

An Applied Reference Guide to Research Designs - Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methods Biochemistry

2.

A concise Introduction to Mixed Methods Research

3.

Biochemistry and Oral Biology

4.

Biomaterials for Oral and CranioMaxillofacial Applications (Frontiers of Oral Biology Vol 17 )

5.

Cranial Nerves: Function & Dysfunction

6.

Cleft Lip and Palate: Epidemiology, Aetiology and Treatment (Frontiers of Oral Biology Vol 17)

7.

Craniofacial development, vol 115 (Current topics in developmental Biology )

8.

Craniofacial Embryogenetics & Development

9.

Craniofacial Sutures: Development Disease and Treatment (Frontier of Oral Biology Vol 12 )

10.

Developmental Biology

11.

Essential Microbiology For Dentistry

12.

Evolution of the Human Head

13.

Functional Occlusion: From TMJ to smile design

14.

Gorlin's Syndrome of the Head and Neck

15.

Herbs and Natural Supplements,2 Vol set: An Evidence based Guide

16.

Laboratory Rat Procedural Technology: Manual and DVD

17.

Oral Microbiology and Immunology

18.

Orbans Oral Histology and Embryology: Atlas of Oral Histology

19.

Oral Wound Healing: Cell Biology and Clinical Management

20.

Periodontal Disease (Frontier of Oral Biology Vol15 )

21.

Quality Research in Health Sciences

22.

Salivary Glands: Development, Adaptations and Disease (Frontier of Oral Biology Vol.16)

23.

Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Deformation

24.

Thompson & Thompson Genetics in Medicine

25.

Tooth Movement (Frontier of Oral Biology Vol18)

26.

Wheeler's Dental Anatomy, Physiology and Occlusion

6. E-LIBRARY

The department and University has an access to HEC-e Library portal

7. Online lectures/tutorials

· capacity building of faculty

Various Seminars, conferences and workshops are held regularly for capacity building of the faculty and staff of the department


Faculty



Dr. Sarah Ghafoor
  • Assistant Professor of Oral Biology
  • BDS, Ph.D
  • Ph: +9242-111 333 366

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